Development of a Video Analysis Scale of Engagement (VASE) for people with Advanced Dementia

Daniel Lai, L. L., Crutch, Sebastian J., West, Julian, Harding, Emma, Brotherhood, Emilie, Takhar, Rohan, Firth, Nicholas C. and Camic, Paul M. (2020) Development of a Video Analysis Scale of Engagement (VASE) for people with Advanced Dementia. Wellcome Open Research, 5 (230). pp. 1-26. ISSN 2398-502X


Background: The current study sought to develop a valid, reliable and unobtrusive tablet computer-based observational measure to assess engagement of people with advanced dementia. The Video Analysis Scale of Engagement (VASE) was designed to enable the rating of moment-by-moment changes in engagement during an activity, which would be useful for both future research and current residential care. Methods: An initial version of the VASE was tested. Face validity and content validity were assessed to validate an operational definition of engagement and develop an acceptable protocol for the scale. Thirtyseven non-professional and professional volunteers were recruited to view and rate level of engagement in music activities using the VASE. Results: An inter-class coefficient (ICC) test gave a high level of rating agreement across professionals and non-professionals. However, the ICC results of within-professionals were mixed. Linear mixed modelling suggested that the types of interventions (active or passive music listening), the particular intervention session being rated, time period of video and the age of raters could affect the ratings. Conclusions: Results suggested that raters used the VASE in a dynamic fashion and that the measure was able to distinguish between interventions. Further investigation and adjustments are warranted for this to be considered a valid and reliable scale in the measurement of engagement of people with advanced dementia in a residential care setting.

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